According to Technology Review, these are the most important and impactful technological advances of 2008:
1. Model the unexpectedAccording to Eric Horvitz, the combination of massive amounts of data, elements for understanding human psychology, and machine learning can help predict and manage unexpected events.
2. Probabilistic chipsAccording to Krishna Palem, a slight uncertainty in the chips could increase the battery life of mobile devices and, perhaps, also the duration of Moore's Law.
3. NanoRadio: Alex Zettl's tiny radios, built from nanotubes, could improve everything from telephones to medical diagnostics.
4. Wireless power: Physicist Marin Soljacic is researching wireless electricity.
5. Atomic magnetometers: John Kitching's tiny magnetic field sensors will push MRI to new heights.
6. ‘Offline’ Web Applications (offline): According to Adobe's Kevin Lynch, computer applications will be more powerful when they take advantage of the browser and desktop.
7. Graphene transistors: A new form of carbon pioneered by Walter de Heer of Georgia Tech could lead to the development of faster and more compact computer processors.
8. Connectomics: Jeff Lichtman hopes to elucidate development and brain diseases with new technologies that clarify the network of neural circuits.
9. “Reality mining”: Sandy Pentland is using the information gathered by the phones to learn about human behavior.
10. Cellulolytic enzymes: Frances Arnold is designing new and improved enzymes to make biofuels from cellulose.